Last updated: 2019-04-12

Checks: 6 0

Knit directory: rrresearch/

This reproducible R Markdown analysis was created with workflowr (version 1.2.0). The Report tab describes the reproducibility checks that were applied when the results were created. The Past versions tab lists the development history.

Great! Since the R Markdown file has been committed to the Git repository, you know the exact version of the code that produced these results.

Great job! The global environment was empty. Objects defined in the global environment can affect the analysis in your R Markdown file in unknown ways. For reproduciblity it’s best to always run the code in an empty environment.

The command set.seed(20190216) was run prior to running the code in the R Markdown file. Setting a seed ensures that any results that rely on randomness, e.g. subsampling or permutations, are reproducible.

Great job! Recording the operating system, R version, and package versions is critical for reproducibility.

Nice! There were no cached chunks for this analysis, so you can be confident that you successfully produced the results during this run.

Great! You are using Git for version control. Tracking code development and connecting the code version to the results is critical for reproducibility. The version displayed above was the version of the Git repository at the time these results were generated.

Note that you need to be careful to ensure that all relevant files for the analysis have been committed to Git prior to generating the results (you can use wflow_publish or wflow_git_commit). workflowr only checks the R Markdown file, but you know if there are other scripts or data files that it depends on. Below is the status of the Git repository when the results were generated:

Ignored files:
    Ignored:    .DS_Store
    Ignored:    .Rhistory
    Ignored:    .Rproj.user/
    Ignored:    analysis/.DS_Store
    Ignored:    analysis/assets/
    Ignored:    assets/
    Ignored:    data/metadata/
    Ignored:    data/raw/
    Ignored:    demos/demo-rmd-0_files/
    Ignored:    demos/demo-rmd-1_files/
    Ignored:    demos/demo-rmd_files/
    Ignored:    docs/.DS_Store
    Ignored:    docs/assets/.DS_Store
    Ignored:    docs/assets/img/.DS_Store
    Ignored:    docs/demo-rmd-0_files/
    Ignored:    docs/demo-rmd-1_files/
    Ignored:    docs/demo-rmd-2_files/
    Ignored:    docs/demo-rmd-3_files/
    Ignored:    docs/demo-rmd_files/
    Ignored:    docs/figure/10_compendium.Rmd/
    Ignored:    docs/index-demo-pre_files/
    Ignored:    figure/
    Ignored:    install.R
    Ignored:    rmd/
    Ignored:    slides/libs/

Unstaged changes:
    Modified:   analysis/10_compendium.Rmd
    Modified:   analysis/_site.yml
    Modified:   render-other.R

Note that any generated files, e.g. HTML, png, CSS, etc., are not included in this status report because it is ok for generated content to have uncommitted changes.

These are the previous versions of the R Markdown and HTML files. If you’ve configured a remote Git repository (see ?wflow_git_remote), click on the hyperlinks in the table below to view them.

File Version Author Date Message
html 115185a annakrystalli 2019-04-10 correct evolottery link in navbar
html a3cfb2c annakrystalli 2019-04-10 update navmenu
Rmd 3bf423c Anna Krystalli 2019-04-10 add setup
html 3bf423c Anna Krystalli 2019-04-10 add setup

Software Requirements

This workshop assumes you have the R, RStudio and Git and Bash Shell software installed on your computer and a personal GitHub account.


R can be downloaded here.


RStudio is an environment for developing using R.

It can be downloaded here. You will need the Desktop version (> 1.0) for your computer.

The Bash Shell

Bash is a commonly-used shell that gives you the power to do simple tasks more quickly.


Video Tutorial
  1. Download the Git for Windows installer.
  2. Run the installer and follow the steps bellow:
    1. Click on “Next”.
    2. Click on “Next”.
    3. Keep “Use Git from the Windows Command Prompt” selected and click on “Next”. If you forgot to do this programs that you need for the workshop will not work properly. If this happens rerun the installer and select the appropriate option.
    4. Click on “Next”.
    5. Keep “Checkout Windows-style, commit Unix-style line endings” selected and click on “Next”.
    6. Keep “Use Windows’ default console window” selected and click on “Next”.
    7. Click on “Install”.
    8. Click on “Finish”.
  3. If your “HOME” environment variable is not set (or you don’t know what this is):
    1. Open command prompt (Open Start Menu then type cmd and press [Enter])
    2. Type the following line into the command prompt window exactly as shown:

      setx HOME “%USERPROFILE%”

    3. Press [Enter], you should see SUCCESS: Specified value was saved.
    4. Quit command prompt by typing exit then pressing [Enter]

This will provide you with both Git and Bash in the Git Bash program.

Mac OS X

The default shell in all versions of Mac OS X is Bash, so no need to install anything. You access Bash from the Terminal (found in /Applications/Utilities). See the Git installation video tutorial for an example on how to open the Terminal.


The default shell is usually Bash, but if your machine is set up differently you can run it by opening a terminal and typing bash. There is no need to install anything.

Git & GitHub

Required for the Version Control part of the the course

Git is a version control system that lets you track who made changes to what when and has options for easily updating a shared or public version of your code on You will need a supported web browser (current versions of Chrome, Firefox or Safari, or Internet Explorer version 9 or above).

You will also need an account at

Basic GitHub accounts are free. We encourage you to create a GitHub account if you don’t have one already. Please consider what personal information you’d like to reveal. For example, you may want to review these instructions for keeping your email address private provided at GitHub.


Git should be installed on your computer as part of your Bash install (described above).

Mac OS X

Video Tutorial

For OS X 10.9 and higher, install Git for Mac by downloading and running the most recent “mavericks” installer from this list. After installing Git, there will not be anything in your /Applications folder, as Git is a command line program. For older versions of OS X (10.5-10.8) use the most recent available installer labelled “snow-leopard” available here.


If Git is not already available on your machine you can try to install it via your distro’s package manager. For Debian/Ubuntu run sudo apt-get install git and for Fedora run sudo yum install git.

Research Compendium Exercise

For the final practical sessions, we will need to use LaTeX. If you don’t have LaTeX installed, consider installing TinyTeX, a custom LaTeX distribution based on TeX Live that is small in size but functions well in most cases, especially for R users.

Check docs before before installing.

devtools requirements

You might also need a set of development tools to install and run devtools. On Windows, download and install Rtools, and devtools takes care of the rest. On Mac, install the Xcode command line tools. On Linux, install the R development package, usually called r-devel or r-base-dev.


1. Are there any advantages or disadvantages to setting up a github account with our university email address? Is it possible to change emails say when we finish our PhD?

I personally prefer to use a non-institutional email for registering accounts to platforms I want smooth access to regardless of affiliation. However, there are advantages associated with affiliation with an academic institution on GitHub, namely that you get a free developer account. The most important benefit of that is that it gives you unlimited public AND private repositories.

You can however add your academic email as a secondary email which will allow you to benefit from this academic research discount. You can also just use your academic address from the start and just change it once you move on.

Find out more about claiming an academic discount here.

R version 3.5.2 (2018-12-20)
Platform: x86_64-apple-darwin15.6.0 (64-bit)
Running under: macOS Mojave 10.14.3

Matrix products: default
BLAS: /Library/Frameworks/R.framework/Versions/3.5/Resources/lib/libRblas.0.dylib
LAPACK: /Library/Frameworks/R.framework/Versions/3.5/Resources/lib/libRlapack.dylib

[1] en_GB.UTF-8/en_GB.UTF-8/en_GB.UTF-8/C/en_GB.UTF-8/en_GB.UTF-8

attached base packages:
[1] stats     graphics  grDevices utils     datasets  methods   base     

loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
 [1] workflowr_1.2.0   Rcpp_1.0.1        digest_0.6.18    
 [4] rprojroot_1.3-2   backports_1.1.3   git2r_0.25.2.9000
 [7] magrittr_1.5      evaluate_0.13     stringi_1.3.1    
[10] fs_1.2.7          whisker_0.3-2     rmarkdown_1.12   
[13] tools_3.5.2       stringr_1.4.0     glue_1.3.1       
[16] xfun_0.5          yaml_2.2.0        compiler_3.5.2   
[19] htmltools_0.3.6   knitr_1.22